Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Significant Health Care Event Free Essays

There have been a few occasions that have assisted with changing and shape human services since forever in the United States. A few impacts that have are huge to profit Americans and remain on target with the necessities of Americans incorporate society, culture, fund, religion, governmental issues, innovation, wellbeing patterns, condition, and populace (Shi Singh, 2012) Significant Event’s Relation to Health Care In the year 2011 there were numerous reports in the media in regards to bisphenol A (BPA). BPA is a hormone-disturbing concoction connected to antagonistic wellbeing impacts like malignant growth, barrenness, diabetes, stoutness and ADHD (Newbold, 2009) a lot of BPA has been expelled from water bottles just as child bottles. We will compose a custom article test on Critical Health Care Event or then again any comparable theme just for you Request Now Notwithstanding, the epoxy gum lining food jars was as yet a grave concern and far reaching issue all through the United States. Another examination done during this time discovered BPA in a few canned organic products, vegetables, and pasta treats devoured by numerous kids. A Harvard study found that volunteers who devoured canned soup every day for five days had a 1,000 percent expansion in urinary BPA (Datz, 2011). BPA is found in numerous nourishments and beverages ingested by Americans consistently. It has additionally been demonstrated to be found in sealants and dentistry composites utilized by dental specialists. Numerous nations have prohibited BPA use in infant bottles, sippy cups, alongside different items essentially utilized by youngsters. BPA has been utilized in the United States since the 1950s, and was endorsed as a food added substance by the FDA around then (Rust Kissinger, 2009). Individual Accountability for a more beneficial way of life Another occasion that has gotten increasingly regular in the United States is moral obligation of every American to have a more advantageous existence that prompts an abatement in medicinal services costs over the long haul. Access to powerful human services is a significant part to numerous individuals just as a significant social duty. Americans as a general public can discover numerous approaches to advance sound conditions and ways of life. These ways incorporate contamination control, word related wellbeing, sanitation, precaution clinical consideration and instruction, alongside food and medication security. More prominent consideration ought to be paid to techniques for wellbeing advancement other than access to medicinal services, for example, natural and general wellbeing and wellbeing research (Resnick, 2007). The way of life of numerous Americans is the essential driver of most of sicknesses in the United States. The main sources of illness have been demonstrated to be contributing components to infection and passing in the United States. Interminable infections are the main source of incapacity just as death in the United States and are on the ascent. 7 out of 10 passings among Americans every year are from ceaseless sicknesses. Coronary illness, malignant growth and stroke represent over half of all passings every year (Kung, Hoyert, Xu, Murphy, 2005). More than 33% of all grown-ups don't meet proposals for oxygen consuming physical movement dependent on the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, and 23% report no recreation time physical action at all in the first month, cigarette smoking is increasingly predominant in secondary school understudies starting at 2007 with a detailed level of 20%, and in excess of 43 million grown-ups are cigarette smokers in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008). Lung malignant growth is the main source of disease demise, and cigarette smoking causes practically all cases. Contrasted with nonsmokers, men who smoke are around multiple times bound to create lung malignant growth and ladies who smoke are around multiple times almost certain. Smoking causes about 90% of lung malignant growth passings in men and practically 80% in ladies. Smoking additionally causes malignant growth of the voice box (larynx), mouth and throat, throat, bladder, kidney, pancreas, cervix, and stomach, and causes intense myeloid leukemia (U. S. Division of Health and Human Services, 2004). Incessant conditions that are brought about by poor way of life decisions at last make a tremendous weight on social insurance spending in the United States. The expense of medicinal services spending for interminable conditions has expanded the United States from $75 billion out of 1970, $2. 6 trillion of every 2010, and is relied upon to reach $4. 8 trillion of every 2021. 75% of these expenses is a direct result of unfortunate ways of life that lead to ceaseless conditions (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 2011). General specialists and insurance agencies must concentrate more on instructive assets identified with protection medication and care to guarantee residents lead more advantageous ways of life that will prompt life span of life. This can be a troublesome errand as doctors are educated to maintain a belief to deal with all individuals who are sick, and Americans as a general public are committed to think about powerless residents. There are no convenient solution arrangements. In any case, I accept that training can help numerous Americans to endeavor more to carry on with a superior and more beneficial way of life so as to keep away from illness and demise from one of the numerous preventable ceaseless conditions. The most effective method to refer to Significant Health Care Event, Papers

Saturday, August 22, 2020

The Mona Lisa World

The Mona Lisa World-Famous Painting Essay Leonardo da Vincis Mona Lisa is the most well known artwork on the planet. It was begun on 1503 and finished on 1517. It is the best painting of the renaissance times. At this moment is sitting behind slug confirmation glass at the MusAÂ ©e du Louver in Paris, France. The little picture pulls in around 6,000,000 guests for each year. Can any anyone explain why this is the most well known composition of the renaissance? Have you at any point got something taken or lost and afterward truly needed that thing back? Well that is what befall this acclaimed painting of Mona Lisa. The Mona Lisa was taken from the Salon Carre in the Louver. In August 1911, an Italian worker at the historical center named Vincenzo Peruggia took the composition odd and exited. His arrangement was to restore the Mona Lisa to Italy where it had a place, yet the police got him following two years, and the artistic creation was recouped and come back to France on December 30, 1913. Like I was stating something was lost and afterward you discovered it, the thing gets significant so did the artistic creation. Since the Mona Lisa was taken it pulled in more individuals, in the end it turned out to be much increasingly well known. At the point when I found the work of art of Mona Lisa was taken. I was stunned in light of the fact that how might you let something significant get taken. So later when I got some answers concerning how and who took it, I thought it was an inside activity in light of the fact that the historical center needed to have it taken so they could draw in more consideration. I thought of that because in light of the fact that its absolutely impossible you could shroud an artistic creation and leave a structure with tight security. I don't know a hundred percent on the off chance that it was an inside activity or not. I sure realize it got a great deal of consideration when it was taken which afterwards when it was discovered individuals that concentrated on it. Individuals additionally visit Museum du Louver exhibition hall just to Mona Lisa in light of the fact that it was made by Leonardo Da Vinci. Leonardo was perhaps the best individuals from the renaissance times, since he had accomplished the renaissance objective of doing numerous things and surpassing altogether. Since hes a decent craftsman so individuals go see it simply consider it like this, see we generally purchase stuff from organizations that are well known and great like Apple. We purchase our telephones from apple since we think there great which makes it significantly progressively celebrated and that is the means by which artworks are we see them and they get renowned. It additionally gives individuals thoughts what the craftsmen however like and what devices they needed to use previously. Reproductions of Mona Lisa have additionally put it on the map. There are copies that look simply like it and that are a clever adaptation of it. This advances the genuine Mona Lisa in light of the fact that individuals attempt to comprehend where the body originated from on the off chance that it is an interesting form where the genuine variant it may move to find out about it in light of the fact that the grin on the substance of Mona Lisa is strange, and some need to discover why shes grinning. It advances the renaissance likewise on the grounds that a few people need to find out about when it was made and what was around that time. So reproductions and different duplicates of Mona Lisa are truly assisting with advancing the genuine one. Indeed I truly like the possibility of copies of Mona Lisa on the grounds that you can have one in you room see it regular at whatever point you need as opposed to going right to Museum du Louver historical center in France. These are my fundamental thoughts of what I think made it the universes most popular work of art from the renaissance. Discovering something that is extremely old and significant or something you have lost gets a great deal of consideration simply like Mona Lisa did when it was discovered again after someone took it. .u7f6f090ed4010c5d5b128a07e366d6f7 , .u7f6f090ed4010c5d5b128a07e366d6f7 .postImageUrl , .u7f6f090ed4010c5d5b128a07e366d6f7 .focused content zone { min-stature: 80px; position: relative; } .u7f6f090ed4010c5d5b128a07e366d6f7 , .u7f6f090ed4010c5d5b128a07e366d6f7:hover , .u7f6f090ed4010c5d5b128a07e366d6f7:visited , .u7f6f090ed4010c5d5b128a07e366d6f7:active { border:0!important; } .u7f6f090ed4010c5d5b128a07e366d6f7 .clearfix:after { content: ; show: table; clear: both; } .u7f6f090ed4010c5d5b128a07e366d6f7 { show: square; change: foundation shading 250ms; webkit-progress: foundation shading 250ms; width: 100%; murkiness: 1; progress: obscurity 250ms; webkit-change: haziness 250ms; foundation shading: #95A5A6; } .u7f6f090ed4010c5d5b128a07e366d6f7:active , .u7f6f090ed4010c5d5b128a07e366d6f7:hover { mistiness: 1; change: darkness 250ms; webkit-progress: obscurity 250ms; foundation shading: #2C3E50; } .u7f6f090ed4010c5d5b128a07e366d6f7 .focused content region { width: 100%; position: relative; } .u7f6f090ed4010c5d5b128a07e366d6f7 .ctaText { fringe base: 0 strong #fff; shading: #2980B9; text dimension: 16px; textual style weight: intense; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; content enhancement: underline; } .u7f6f090ed4010c5d5b128a07e366d6f7 .postTitle { shading: #FFFFFF; text dimension: 16px; text style weight: 600; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; width: 100%; } .u7f6f090ed4010c5d5b128a07e366d6f7 .ctaButton { foundation shading: #7F8C8D!important; shading: #2980B9; outskirt: none; outskirt range: 3px; box-shadow: none; text dimension: 14px; text style weight: striking; line-tallness: 26px; moz-outskirt sweep: 3px; content adjust: focus; content design: none; content shadow: none; width: 80px; min-tallness: 80px; foundation: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/modules/intelly-related-posts/resources/pictures/straightforward arrow.png)no-rehash; position: outright; right: 0; top: 0; } .u7f6f090ed4010c5d5b128a07e366d6f7:hover .ctaButton { foundation shading: #34495E!important; } .u7f6f090e d4010c5d5b128a07e366d6f7 .focused content { show: table; tallness: 80px; cushioning left: 18px; top: 0; } .u7f6f090ed4010c5d5b128a07e366d6f7-content { show: table-cell; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; cushioning right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-adjust: center; width: 100%; } .u7f6f090ed4010c5d5b128a07e366d6f7:after { content: ; show: square; clear: both; } READ: Futility in World War One Poetry EssayLeonardo Da Vinci was probably the best craftsman during that time so why wouldnt you need to perceive how individuals his artworks and innovations so they can perceive what sort of instruments they utilized in those occasions. Which I believe is great if your into being a student of history or an a craftsman, or others see it for entertainment only. A duplicate of something that is important makes it a great deal acclaimed and in addition to the duplicates are less expensive yet it causes you to feel like you have it. I for one think Mona Lisa is an incredible painting and has a great deal of puzzle to it since no one knows why she is grinning and what her identity is.

Tuesday, July 28, 2020

V Storms the Senate

V Storms the Senate Youd think one hack celebrating Guy Fawkes Night would be enough, right? Not at MIT. Allow me first to set the scene. As some of you may already know, a little over a month ago, I decided to run for a seat in the Undergraduate Association Senate. As its name suggests, the Undergraduate Association (or the UA for short, because MIT students love acronyms) aims to represent and protect the goals and interests of all undergrads in an organized, orderly fashion. Ill probably talk more about the UA (and other governing bodies at MIT) in another entry, but for now, what matters most is that the Senate was in session on Guy Fawkes Night, blissfully unaware that anything was amiss. I think you see where this is going. In fact, as music from the 1812 Overture blared, something very strange was happening across campus. Dressed as V, the enigmatic anti-hero of V for Vendetta, hackers marched through the Infinite Corridor, across Massachusetts Avenue, and into the Student Center. The hackers try to persuade the Senates Sergeant-at-Arms, Sun Kim 11 (Next House), to let them into the Senate chamber. The surprise entrance, complete with the 1812 Overture. The hackers apparent leader delivers a short speech. Remember, remember the Fifth of November The day that the wanking was caught Under no condition should the laptop prohibition Ever be forgot.The only verdict is vengeance; a vendetta, held as a votive, not in vain, for the value and veracity of such shall one day vindicate the vigilant and the virtuous. Verily, this vichyssoise of verbiage veers most verbose, so let me simply add that its my very good honor to meet you and you may call me V. Party poppers! Their mission accomplished, the hackers make a noble exit. The hack was also featured on the front cover of todays Tech. Many thanks to Tech Photographer Eric Schmiedl 09 for graciously providing these pictures and, of course, inexpressible thanks to all the hackers who made last night one of the most memorable Senate meetings ever.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu, Anti-Apartheid Activist

Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu (May 18, 1912–May 5, 2003) was a South African anti-apartheid activist and co-founder of the African National Congress (ANC) Youth League. He served in prison for 25 years on Robben Island, alongside Nelson Mandela, and he was the second post-apartheid deputy president of the ANC, after Mandela. Fast Facts: Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu Known For:  South African anti-apartheid activist, co-founder of the ANC Youth League, served 25 years alongside Nelson Mandela, post-apartheid deputy president of the ANCAlso Known As:  Walter SisuluBorn:  May 18, 1912 in the eNgcobo area of Transkei, South AfricaParents: Alice Sisulu and Victor DickensonDied:  May 5, 2003 in Johannesburg, South AfricaEducation: Local Anglican Missionary Institute, earned a Bachelors degree while imprisoned on Robben IslandPublished Works: I Will Go Singing:  Walter Sisulu Speaks of His Life and the Struggle for Freedom in South AfricaAwards and Honors: Isitwalandwe SeaparankoeSpouse: Albertina Nontsikelelo TotiweChildren: Max, Anthony Mlungisi, Zwelakhe, Lindiwe, Nonkululeko; adopted children: Jongumzi, Gerald, Beryl, and Samuel  Notable Quote: The people are our strength. In their service we shall face and conquer those who live on the backs of our people. In the history of mankind it is a law of life that problems arise when the condi tions are there for their solution. Early Life Walter Sisulu was born in the eNgcobo area of Transkei on May 18, 1912 (the same year the forerunner of the ANC was formed). Sisulus father was a visiting white foreman supervising a black road-gang and his mother was a local Xhosa woman. Sisulu was raised by his mother and uncle, the local headman. Walter Sisulus mixed heritage and lighter skin were influential in his early social development. He felt distanced from his peers and rejected the deferential attitude his family showed toward South Africas white administration. Sisulu attended the local Anglican Missionary Institute but dropped out in 1927 at age 15 while in fourth grade to find work at a Johannesburg dairy—to help support his family. He returned to the Transkei later that year to attend the Xhosa initiation ceremony and achieve adult status. Working Life and Early Activism During the 1930s, Walter Sisulu had several different jobs: gold miner, domestic worker, factory hand, kitchen worker, and bakers assistant. Through the Orlando Brotherly Society, Sisulu investigated his Xhosa tribal history and debated black economic independence in South Africa. Walter Sisulu was an active trade unionist—he was fired from his bakery job in 1940 for organizing a strike for higher wages. He spent the next two years trying to develop his own real estate agency. In 1940, Sisulu joined the African National Congress (ANC) and allied with those pressing for black African nationalism and actively opposing black involvement in World War II. He gained a reputation as a street vigilante, patrolling his townships streets with a knife. He also obtained his first jail sentence—for punching a train conductor when he confiscated a black mans rail pass. Leadership in the ANC and Founding of the Youth League In the early 1940s, Walter Sisulu developed a talent for leadership and organization and was awarded an executive post in the Transvaal division of the ANC. It was also at this time that he met Albertina Nontsikelelo Totiwe, whom he married in 1944. In the same year, Sisulu, along with his wife and friends Oliver Tambo and Nelson Mandela, formed the ANC Youth League; Sisulu was elected as treasurer. Through the Youth League, Sisulu, Tambo, and Mandela greatly influenced the ANC. When DF Malans  Herenigde Nationale Party  (HNP, Re-united National Party) won the 1948 election, the ANC reacted. By the end of 1949, Sisulus programme of action was adopted and he was elected as secretary-general (a position he retained until 1954). Arrest and Rise to Prominence As one of the organizers of the 1952 Defiance campaign (in collaboration with the South African Indian Congress and the South African Communist Party) Sisulu was arrested under the Suppression of Communism Act. With his 19 co-accused, he was sentenced to nine months hard labor suspended for two years. The political power of the Youth League within the ANC had increased to the stage that they could push for their candidate for president, Chief Albert Luthuli, to be elected. In December 1952, Sisulu was also re-elected as secretary-general. Adoption of Multi-Racial Government Advocacy In 1953, Walter Sisulu spent five months touring Eastern Bloc countries (the Soviet Union and Romania), Israel, China, and Great Britain. His experiences abroad led to a reversal of his black nationalist stance. Sisulu had especially noted the Communist commitment to social development in the USSR but disliked Stalinist rule. Sisulu became an advocate for multi-racial government in South Africa rather than an African nationalistic, blacks-only policy. Banned and Arrested Sisulus increasingly active role in the anti-apartheid struggle led to his repeated banning under the Suppression of Communism Act. In 1954, no longer able to attend public meetings, he resigned as secretary-general and was forced to work in secret. As a moderate, Sisulu was instrumental in organizing the 1955 Congress of People but was unable to participate in the actual event. The Apartheid government reacted by arresting 156 anti-Apartheid leaders in what became known as the  Treason Trial. Sisulu was one of 30 accused who remained under trial until March 1961. In the end, all 156 accused were acquitted. Forming Military Wing and Going Underground Following the  Sharpeville Massacre  in 1960, Sisulu, Mandela and several others formed  Umkonto we Sizwe  (MK, the Spear of the Nation)—the military wing of the ANC. During 1962 and 1963 Sisulu was arrested six times. Only the last arrest—in March 1963, for furthering the aims of the ANC and organizing the May 1961 stay-at-home protest—led to a conviction. Released on bail in April 1963, Sisulu went underground and joined up with the MK. While underground, he delivered weekly broadcasts via a secret ANC radio transmitter. Prison On July 11, 1963, Sisulu was among those arrested at Lilieslief Farm, the secret headquarters of the ANC, and placed in solitary confinement for 88 days. The lengthy Rivonia trial, which started in October 1963, lead to a sentence of life imprisonment (for planning acts of sabotage), handed down on June 12, 1964. Sisulu, Mandela, Govan Mbeki, and four others were sent to Robben Island. During his 25 years behind bars, Sisulu earned a Bachelors degree in art history and anthropology and read more than 100 biographies. In 1982, Sisulu was transferred to Pollsmoor Prison, Cape Town, after a medical examination at Groote Schuur Hospital. He was finally released in October 1989. Post-Apartheid Roles When the ANC was un-banned on February 2, 1990, Sisulu took a prominent role. He was elected deputy president in 1991 and was given the task of restructuring the ANC in South Africa. His biggest immediate challenge was to try to end the violence that erupted between the ANC and the Inkhata Freedom Party. Walter Sisulu finally retired on the eve of South Africas first multi-racial elections in 1994. Death Sisulu lived his last years in the same Soweto house that his family had taken in the 1940s. On May 5, 2003, only 13 days before his 91st birthday, Walter Sisulu died following a long period of ill health with Parkinsons Disease. He received a state funeral in Soweto on May 17, 2003. Legacy As a prominent anti-apartheid leader, Walter Sisulu changed the course of South African history. His advocacy for a multi-racial future for South Africa was one of his most enduring marks. Sources â€Å"Nelson Mandelas Tribute to Walter Sisulu.†Ã‚  BBC News, BBC, 6 May 2003.Beresford, David. â€Å"Obituary: Walter Sisulu.†Ã‚  The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 7 May 2003.Sisulu, Walter Max, George M. Houser,  Herb Shore. I Will Go Singing:  Walter Sisulu Speaks of His Life and the Struggle for Freedom in South Africa. Robben Island Museum in association with the Africa Fund, 2001.

Saturday, May 9, 2020

1917 Russian Revolution Essay - 1114 Words

Russian Revolution Essay. Throughout history there have been many revolutions between the population of a country and its government. People always want change, usually in the directions of freedom, peace and equality and in the lead up to the 1917 Russian revolution; there were a variety of social, political and economic situations that all played their part. In the years leading up to the revolution, Russia had been involved in a series of wars. The Crimean war, The Russo-Turkish war, The Russo-Japanese war and the First World War. Russia had been defeated in all except the war with Turkey and its government and economy had the scars to prove it. A severe lack of food and poor living conditions amongst the peasant population led†¦show more content†¦Petersburg was submitted to Nicholas II. A large group had formed in front of his palace and claimed that they would let themselves be shot if the demands of the people were not met, saying, We do not regret this sacrifice, we are glad to make it. Among the demands were: The immediate release of all who have suffered for religious, political, and peasant disorders. Universal education financed by the state. Equality for everyone. The separation of church and state. Immediate freedom for consumers and trade unions. And the introduction of a minimum wage. It was the large number of these groups and the constant in-fighting amongst them that caused their strikes and protests to overthrow the Tsar to fail. The Tsar and his elite began to understand that change was required before they lost complete control. By signing the October manifesto in 1905 Tsar Nicolas II turned Russia into a constitutional monarchy, gave its citizens civil rights and gave the Duma, Russia’s parliament legislative power. It wasn’t long before the 1905 revolution had died down, when Nicholas II disbanded the Duma and violated many of the civil liberties promises in the October manifesto. As a result of the Tsar reneging on his promises, by 1917 another revolution had begun, not only to highlight the lack food and civil rights as in the 1905 revolution but also from the violations of the October manifesto. In March of 1917 workers in Petrograd went on strike. Unlike the protests of 1905, theShow MoreRelatedThe Russian Revolutions of 1917 Essay1326 Words   |  6 PagesThe Russian Revolutions of 1917 There were two revolutions that occurred in Russia in 1917. The first one, in February, overthrew the Russian monarchy. The second one, in October, created the world’s first Communist state. The Russian revolutions of 1917 involved a series of uprisings by workers and peasants throughout the country and by soldiers, who were predominantly of peasant origin, in the Russian army. Many of the uprisings were organized and led byRead MoreEssay on The Causes of the Russian Revolution in March 1917859 Words   |  4 PagesThe Causes of the Russian Revolution in March 1917 There were many causes to explain the outbreak of the Russian Revolution in March 1917. Some of these can be defined as long term causes as their origin goes way back to pre-revolutionary times. Others are short-term reasons or even immediate effects, which act as the last spark, to bring the tense situation out of control. In this essay I will be looking at some of these long and short-term causes in more detail. Read MoreEssay on The Russian Revolution in March 19171586 Words   |  7 PagesThe Russian Revolution in March 1917 There where many reasons that led to the fall of tsarism in march 1917. One of them was tsars incompetence and the fact that he was incapable of finding effective ministers, or of supporting those he appointed. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Term Paper on Leadership Free Essays

Most executives have come to rely on a familiar set of behaviors and skills, often exhibited in the way they communicate within their team. The High-Impact Leadership Executive Program is designed to help senior executives build distinctive communication skills that will help in shaping their leadership style and presence. When a person is deciding if she respects one as a leader, she does not think about his attributes, rather, she observes what one do so that she can know who the leader really are. We will write a custom essay sample on Term Paper on Leadership or any similar topic only for you Order Now She uses this observation to tell if one is an honorable and trusted leader or a self-serving person who misuses authority to look good and get promoted. Self-serving leaders are not as effective because their employees only obey them, not follow them. They succeed in many areas because they present a good image to their seniors at the expense of their workers. Be Know Do The basis of good leadership is honorable character and selfless service to your organization. In our employees’ eyes, leadership is everything one does that affects the organization’s objectives and their well-being. Respected leaders concentrate on: o what they are [be] (such as beliefs and character) o what they know (such as job, tasks, and human nature) o What they do (such as implementing, motivating, and providing direction). People want to be guided by those they respect and who have a clear sense of direction. To gain respect, they must be ethical. A sense of direction is achieved by conveying a strong vision of the future. Leadership: Leadership can be defined as one’s ability to get others to willingly follow. Every organization needs leaders at every level. Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. Leadership has been described as the â€Å"process of social influence, in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task†. A leader with vision has a clear, vivid picture of where to go, as well as a firm grasp on what success looks like and how to achieve it. But it’s not enough to have a vision; leaders must also share it and act upon it. Jack Welch, former chairman and CEO of General Electric Co. , said, â€Å"Good business leaders create a vision, articulate the vision, passionately own the vision and relentlessly drive it to completion. † Leadership Theories TRAIT THEORY: Theories that consider personal qualities and characteristics that differentiate leaders from non-leaders. Reemergence: New methods and measurements were developed after the influential reviews that would ultimately reestablish the trait theory as a viable approach to the study of leadership. For example, improvements in researchers’ use of the round robin research design methodology allowed researchers to see that individuals can and do emerge as leaders across a variety of situations and tasks. Additionally, during the 1980s statistical advances allowed researchers to conduct meta-analyses, in which they could quantitatively analyze and summarize the findings from a wide array of studies. This advent allowed trait theorists to create a comprehensive and parsimonious picture of previous leadership research rather than rely on the qualitative reviews of the past. Equipped with new methods, leadership researchers revealed the following: ? Individuals can and do emerge as leaders across a variety of situations and tasks. ? Significant relationships exist between leadership and such individual traits as: ? intelligence ? adjustment ? extraversion ? conscientiousness ? openness to experience ? general self-efficacy While the trait theory of leadership has certainly regained popularity, its reemergence has not been accompanied by a corresponding increase in sophisticated conceptual frameworks. Specifically, Zaccaro (2007) noted that trait theories still: 1. focus on a small set of individual attributes such as Big Five personality traits, to the neglect of cognitive abilities, motives, values, social skills, expertise, and problem-solving skills; 2. fail to consider patterns or integrations of multiple attributes; 3. do not distinguish between those leader attributes that are generally not malleable over time and those that are shaped by, and bound to, situational influences; Do not consider how stable leader attributes account for the behavioral diversity necessary for effective leadership. Behavioral and style theories: In response to the early criticisms of the trait approach, theorists began to research leadership as a set of behaviors, evaluating the behavior of successful leaders, determining behavior taxonomy, and identifying broad leadership styles. David McClelland, for example, posited that leadership takes a strong personality with a well-developed positive ego. To lead, self-confidence and high self-esteem are useful, perhaps even essential. Kurt Lewin, Ronald Lipitt, and Ralph White developed in 1939 the seminal work on the influence of leadership styles and performance. The researchers evaluated the performance of groups of eleven-year-old boys under different types of work climate. In each, the leader exercised his influence regarding the type of group decision making, praise and criticism (feedback), and the management of the group tasks (project management) according to three styles: authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire. The managerial grid model is also based on a behavioral theory. The model was developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton in 1964 and suggests five different leadership styles, based on the leaders’ concern for people and their concern for goal achievement. Situational and contingency theories: Situational theory also appeared as a reaction to the trait theory of leadership. Social scientists argued that history was more than the result of intervention of great men as Carlyle suggested. Herbert Spencer (1884) said that the times produce the person and not the other way around. This theory assumes that different situations call for different characteristics; according to this group of theories, no single optimal psychographic profile of a leader exists. According to the theory, â€Å"what an individual actually does when acting as a leader is in large part dependent upon characteristics of the situation in which he functions. † Some theorists started to synthesize the trait and situational approaches. Building upon the research of Lewin et al. , academics began to normalize the descriptive models of leadership climates, defining three leadership styles and identifying which situations each style works better in. The authoritarian leadership style, for example, is approved in periods of crisis but fails to win the â€Å"hearts and minds† of followers in day-to-day management; the democratic leadership style is more adequate in situations that require consensus building; finally, the laissez-faire leadership style is appreciated for the degree of freedom it provides, but as the leaders do not â€Å"take charge†, they can be perceived as a failure in protracted or thorny organizational problems. Thus, theorists defined the style of leadership as contingent to the situation, which is sometimes, classified as contingency theory. Four contingency leadership theories appear more prominently in recent years: Fiedler contingency model, Vroom-Yetton decision model, the path-goal theory, and the Hersey-Blanchard situational theory. The Fiedler contingency model bases the leader’s effectiveness on what Fred Fiedler called situational contingency. This results from the interaction of leadership style and situational favorability (later called situational control). The theory defined two types of leader: those who tend to accomplish the task by developing good relationships with the group (relationship-oriented), and those who have as their prime concern carrying out the task itself (task-oriented). According to Fiedler, there is no ideal leader. Both task-oriented and relationship-oriented leaders can be effective if their leadership orientation fits the situation. When there is a good leader-member relation, a highly structured task, and high leader position power, the situation is considered a â€Å"favorable situation†. Fiedler found that task-oriented leaders are more effective in extremely favorable or unfavorable situations, whereas relationship-oriented leaders perform best in situations with intermediate favorability. Victor Vroom in collaboration with Phillip Yetton (1973) and later with Arthur Jago (1988), developed a taxonomy for describing leadership situations, which was used in a normative decision model where leadership styles were connected to situational variables, defining which approach was more suitable to which situation. This approach was novel because it supported the idea that the same manager could rely on different group decision making approaches depending on the attributes of each situation. This model was later referred to as situational contingency theory. The path-goal theory of leadership was developed by Robert House (1971) and was based on the expectancy theory of Victor Vroom. According to House, the essence of the theory is â€Å"the meta proposition that leaders, to be effective, engage in behaviors that complement subordinates’ environments and abilities in a manner that compensates for deficiencies and is instrumental to subordinate satisfaction and individual and work unit performance†. The theory identifies four leader behaviors, achievement-oriented, directive, participative, and supportive, that is contingent to the environment factors and follower characteristics. In contrast to the Fiedler contingency model, the path-goal model states that the four leadership behaviors are fluid, and that leaders can adopt any of the four depending on what the situation demands. The path-goal model can be classified both as a contingency theory, as it depends on the circumstances, and as a transactional leadership theory, as the theory emphasizes the reciprocity behavior between the leader and the followers. The situational leadership model proposed by Hersey and Blanchard suggests four leadership-styles and four levels of follower-development. For effectiveness, the model posits that the leadership-style must match the appropriate level of follower-development. In this model, leadership behavior becomes a function not only of the characteristics of the leader, but of the characteristics of followers as well. Leadership on the whole: Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. So, leaders carry out this process by applying their leadership knowledge and skills. This is called Process Leadership. [pic] While leadership is learned, the skills and knowledge processed by the leader can be influenced by his or hers attributes or traits, such as beliefs, values, ethics, and character. Knowledge and skills contribute directly to the process of leadership, while the other attributes give the leader certain characteristics that make him or her unique. Leadership Models Leadership models help us to understand what makes leaders act the way they do. The ideal is not to lock yourself in to a type of behavior discussed in the model, but to realize that every situation calls for a different approach or behavior to be taken. Two models will be discussed, the Four Framework Approach and the Managerial Grid. Four Framework Approach: In the Four Framework Approach, Bolman and Deal (1991) suggest that leaders display leadership behaviors in one of four types of frameworks: Structural, Human Resource, Political, or Symbolic. [pic] This model suggests that leaders can be put into one of these four categories and there are times when one approach is appropriate and times when it would not be. That is, any style can be effective or ineffective, depending upon the situation. Relying on only one of these approaches would be inadequate, thus we should strive to be conscious of all four approaches, and not just depend on one or two. For example, during a major organization change, a Structural leadership style may be more effective than a Symbolic leadership style; during a period when strong growth is needed, the Symbolic approach may be better. We also need to understand ourselves as each of us tends to have a preferred approach. We need to be conscious of this at all times and be aware of the limitations of just favoring one approach. Structural Framework: In an effective leadership situation, the leader is a social architect whose leadership style is analysis and design. While in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a petty tyrant whose leadership style is details. Structural Leaders focus on structure, strategy, environment, implementation, experimentation, and adaptation. Human Resource Framework: In an effective leadership situation, the leader is a catalyst and servant whose leadership style is support, advocating, and empowerment. hile in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a pushover, whose leadership style is abdication and fraud. Human Resource Leaders believe in people and communicate that belief; they are visible and accessible; they empower, increase participation, support, share information, and move decision making down into the organization. Political Framework: In an effective leadership situation, the leader is an advocate, whose leadership style is coalition and build ing. While in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a hustler, whose leadership style is manipulation. Political leaders clarify what they want and what they can get; they assess the distribution of power and interests; they build linkages to other stakeholders, use persuasion first, then use negotiation and coercion only if necessary. Symbolic Framework: In an effective leadership situation, the leader is a prophet, whose leadership style is inspiration. While in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a fanatic or fool, whose leadership style is smoke and mirrors. Symbolic leaders view organizations as a stage or theater to play certain roles and give impressions; these leaders use symbols to capture attention; they try to frame experience by providing plausible interpretations of experiences; they discover and communicate a vision. . Company Profile of ROBI: Background of â€Å"Robi† Axiata (Bangladesh) Limited is a dynamic and leading countrywide GSM communication solution provider. It is a joint venture company between Axiata Group Berhad, Malaysia and NTT DOCOMO INC, Japan. Axiata (Bangladesh) Limited, formerly known as Telekom Malaysia International (Bangladesh), commenced its operation in 1997 under the brand name ROBI among the pioneer GSM mobile telecommunications service providers in Bangladesh. Later, on 28th March, 2010 the company started its new journey with the brand name Robi. Robi is truly a people-oriented brand of Bangladesh. Robi, the people’s champion, is there for the people of Bangladesh, where they want and the way they want. Having the local tradition at its core, Robi marches ahead with innovation and creativity. To ensure leading-edge technology, Robi has the international expertise of Axiata and NTT DOCOMO INC. It supports 2G voice, CAMEL phase 2 and GPRS/EDGE service with high speed internet connectivity. Its GSM service is based on a robust network architecture and cutting edge technology such as Intelligent Network (IN), which provides peace-of-mind solutions in terms of voice clarity, extensive nationwide network coverage and multiple global partners for international roaming. It has the widest International Roaming coverage in Bangladesh connecting 553 operators across 207 countries. Its customer centric solution includes value added services (VAS), quality customer care, easy access call centers, digital network security and flexible tariff rates. With its strengths and competencies developed over the years, Robi aims to provide the best quality service experience in terms of coverage and connectivity to its customers all over Bangladesh. Together with its unique ability to develop local insights, Robi creates distinct services with local flavor to remain close to the hearts of its customers. Objectives of Robi EMPOWERING YOU: Robi is there for people, where they want and in the way they want, in order to help them develop, grow and make the most of their lives through Robi’s services. Vision Mission of â€Å"Robi† Vision To be a leader as a Telecommunication Service Provider in Bangladesh Mission ROBI aims to achieve its vision through being number ‘one’ not only in terms of market share, but also by being an employer of choice with up-to-date knowledge and products geared to address the ever changing needs of our budding nation Leadership Qualities of a HR Manager of ROBI Inspires a Shared Vision: An effective project leader is often described as having a vision of where to go and the ability to articulate it. Visionaries thrive on change and being able to draw new boundaries. It was once said that a leader is someone who â€Å"lifts us up, gives us a reason for being and gives the vision and spirit to change. † Visionary leaders enable people to feel they have a real stake in the project. They empower people to experience the vision on their own. According to Bennis â€Å"They offer people opportunities to create their own vision, to explore what the vision will mean to their jobs and lives, and to envision their future as part of the vision for the organization. † (Bennis, 1997) A Good Communicator The ability to communicate with people at all levels is almost always named as the second most important skill by project managers and team members. Project leadership calls for clear communication about goals, responsibility, performance, expectations and feedback. There is a great deal of value placed on openness and directness. The project leader is also the team’s link to the larger organization. The leader must have the ability to effectively negotiate and use persuasion when necessary to ensure the success of the team and project. Through effective communication, project leaders support individual and team achievements by creating explicit guidelines for accomplishing results and for the career advancement of team members. Integrity One of the most important things a project leader must remember is that his or her actions, and not words, set the modus operandi for the team. Good leadership demands commitment to, and demonstration of, ethical practices. Creating standards for ethical behavior for oneself and living by these standards, as well as rewarding those who exemplify these practices, are responsibilities of project leaders. Leadership motivated by self-interest does not serve the well being of the team. Leadership based on integrity represents nothing less than a set of values others share, behavior consistent with values and dedication to honesty with self and team members. In other words the leader â€Å"walks the talk† and in the process earns trust. Enthusiasm Plain and simple, we don’t like leaders who are negative – they bring us down. We want leaders with enthusiasm, with a bounce in their step, with a can-do attitude. We want to believe that we are part of an invigorating journey – we want to feel alive. We tend to follow people with a can-do attitude, not those who give us 200 reasons why something can’t be done. Enthusiastic leaders are committed to their goals and express this commitment through optimism. Leadership emerges as someone expresses such confident commitment to a project that others want to share his or her optimistic expectations. Enthusiasm is contagious and effective leaders know it. Empathy What is the difference between empathy and sympathy? Although the words are similar, they are, in fact, mutually exclusive. According to Norman Paul, in sympathy the subject is principally absorbed in his or her own feelings as they are projected into the object and has little concern for the reality and validity of the object’s special experience. Empathy, on the other hand, presupposes the existence of the object as a separate individual, entitled to his or her own feelings, ideas and emotional history (Paul, 1970). As one student so eloquently put it, â€Å"It’s nice when a project leader acknowledges that we all have a life outside of work. † Competence Having a winning track record is the surest way to be considered competent. Expertise in leadership skills is another dimension in competence. The ability to challenge, inspire, enable, model and encourage must be demonstrated if leaders are to be seen as capable and competent. Ability to Delegate Tasks You demonstrate your trust in others through your actions – how much you check and control their work, how much you delegate and how much you allow people to participate. Individuals who are unable to trust other people often fail as leaders and forever remain little more that micro-managers, or end up doing all of the work themselves. As one project management student put it, â€Å"A good leader is a little lazy. † An interesting perspective! Cool Under Pressure When leaders encounter a stressful event, they consider it interesting, they feel they can influence the outcome and they see it as an opportunity. â€Å"Out of the uncertainty and chaos of change, leaders rise up and articulate a new image of the future that pulls the project together. † (Bennis 1997) And remember – never let them see you sweat. Team-Building Skills A team builder can best be defined as a strong person who provides the substance that holds the team together in common purpose toward the right objective. In order for a team to progress from a group of strangers to a single cohesive unit, the leader must understand the process and dynamics required for this transformation. He or she must also know the appropriate leadership style to use during each stage of team development. The leader must also have an understanding of the different team players styles and how to capitalize on each at the proper time, for the problem at hand. Problem Solving Skills Although an effective leader is said to share problem-solving responsibilities with the team, we expect our project leaders to have excellent problem-solving skills themselves. Leadership Styles Leadership style refers to a leader’s behavior. It is the result of the philosophy, personality, and experience of the leader. Rhetoric specialists have also developed models for understanding leadership. The Participative leadership style favors decision-making by the group of ROBI. Such a leader gives instructions after consulting the group. They can win the cooperation of their group and can motivate them effectively and positively. The decisions of the democratic leader are not unilateral as with the autocrat because they arise from consultation with the group members and participation by them. good reasons why ROBI started embracing and applying Participative Leadership: 1. Participative leadership adds real value to employee contribution in decision making, problem solving, planning and implementation. It focuses on developing them on many levels while landscaping future goals and plans that benefit ROBI. 2. Participative leadership meets strategic need s/goals of companys by supporting individuals to reach their personal development goals. Developing people creates the foundation for sustainable positive change. 3. Participative leadership is transformational as it wakes the inner leaders in people by reaching out to their deepest resources, expertise and natural ability to lead. It removes barriers and opens doors. 4. Participative leadership delivers results as it increases productivity and provides a satisfactory ROI . Employees perform loyalfully and is more committed to achieve company’s goals and contribute to the long- term picture. 5. Participative leadership is an opportunity for leaders to let go of their parochial perspectives and do what is right to optimize the entire company’s capacity, not just their own area. Benefits of Participative Leadership Participative leadership has been implemented in various corporate organizations in a big way. Leaders are seeing the benefits of getting their team members to participate in the decision-making process through discussions and deliberations. Here we see the obvious and some not-so-obvious advantages of participative leadership that is taking business teams to a whole new plane of progress. Everyone Participates The best advantage of the participative leadership model is that everyone in the team gets a chance to participate. Like in a democracy, the team members have their say in the decisions that the team makes as a whole. This fosters a sense of equality within the team and that helps everyone feel important as contributors. New Ideas Are Thrown about Participative leadership helps bring more minds together and hence there are more ideas and suggestions that are generated. Leaders, for whatever they are, are individuals and they may be limited in their capacities of thought. However, when several people belonging to different levels of activity are asked to contribute to the worth of a particular decision, new ideas emerge. Some of these could be practical issues that people at the top levels do not think about. Hence, the decision becomes more practical and implementable and creatively rich. Decisions Become More Result-Oriented Since everyone has put in some or the other effort towards the planning process and everyone has a feeling of importance, it is quite evident that they will work towards implementing their own suggestions as well. This is a much better approach at making a team do things-make them suggest those things themselves. It becomes easier for leaders to generate results. Leaders Can Assess the Worth of Their Policies During the participation, leaders can find out whether there are any constraints or impediments that might come in the way of implementation. They also get a feel of the enthusiasm factor, and can assess whether the people in the team are agreeable to the changes they are planning to implement. The level of participation is a direct indicator of the enthusiasm of the team and if the enthusiasm is higher, the plan will be implemented faster and in a more effective way as well. A Progressive Approach Participative leadership is gaining wide currency right now because it allows everyone to contribute; it knits together the entire organization through their participation. This is the contemporary approach that leadership recommends and uses, and it has the potential to take organizations towards new levels of success. Future Leadership Discovery When employees participate in the decision-making process, current management has the opportunity to see who is stepping up to the plate and who is coming up with ideas. This is just another tool for management to evaluate employees for promotion. When employees are promoted from within a company, less outsiders are brought in, and the employees are more motivated to do a good job. Many companies with defunct leadership practices often miss opportunities to promote from within. A new leader found within the company will be a valuable cornerstone for teamwork. Motivation All employees feel the need for motivation. Motivation is the key concept for change. People are naturally resistant to change, and leadership needs to find the proper theory to help people make the transition. Communication is the most important facet of motivation. If employees feel out of the loop, hen they are less likely to concentrate on the main goal of the team or organization. With participative leadership, the employee has more information and will stay more active in the change or decision process. Employers must initiate the communication as a show of faith to their employees. Team Spirit Since employees have a position and input in the decision-mak ing process, the sense of involvement is not just felt individually but is felt as a team. If potential negative circumstances are involved in the decision that is to be made, team-centered involvement will allow the leadership to be informed more fully of the pros and the cons. Communication is still important. When the leaders finally make a decision, the team is prepared for it; and with its participation, the stress and resistance to change is diminished. If negative perceptions of the change is noticed, the team can diffuse the situation without leadership becoming involved. Employee Productivity Studies have shown that there is a correlation between participative leadership and productivity. There is a suggestion that through communication and participative leadership high-quality performance can be obtained. Leadership that practices the participative model have higher ratings as managers than leaders who manipulate their employees. Participative leadership begins a cycle of productive leadership and productive employees. This cycle increases company profitability and allows for internal growth. More promotions are possible and the progress of productivity increases across the company as the team grows. Performance Emotions: Leadership can be perceived as a particularly emotion-laden process, with emotions entwined with the social influence process. In an organization, the leader’s mood has some effects on his/her group. These effects can be described in three levels. 1. The mood of individual group members. Group members with leaders in a (say) positive mood experience more positive mood than do group members with leaders in a (say) negative mood. The leaders transmit their moods to other group members through the mechanism of emotional contagion. Mood contagion may be one of the psychological mechanisms by which charismatic leaders influence followers. 2. The affective tone of the group. Group affective tone represents the consistent or homogeneous affective reactions within a group. Group affective tone is an aggregate of the moods of the individual members of the group and refers to mood at the group level of analysis. Groups with leaders in a positive mood have a more positive affective tone than do groups with leaders in a negative mood. 3. Group processes like coordination, effort expenditure, and task strategy. Public expressions of mood impact how group members think and act. When people experience and express mood, they send signals to others. Leaders signal their goals, intentions, and attitudes through their expressions of moods. For example, expressions of positive moods by leaders signal that leaders deem progress toward goals to be good. The group members respond to those signals cognitively and behaviorally in ways that are reflected in the group processes In research about client service, it was found that expressions of positive mood by the leader improve the performance of the group, although in other sectors there were other findings. Environment: Every organization has a particular work environment, which dictates to a considerable degree how its leaders respond to problems and opportunities. This is brought about by its heritage of past leaders and its present leaders. Goals, Values, and Concepts Leaders exert influence on the environment via three types of actions: 1. The goals and performance standards they establish. 2. The values they establish for the organization. 3. The business and people concepts they establish. Successful organizations have leaders who set high standards and goals across the entire spectrum, such as strategies, market leadership, plans, meetings and presentations, productivity, quality, and reliability. Values reflect the concern the organization has for its employees, customers, investors, vendors, and surrounding community. These values define the manner in how business will be conducted. Concepts define what products or services the organization will offer and the methods and processes for conducting business. These goals, values, and concepts make up the organization’s personality or how the organization is observed by both outsiders and insiders. This personality defines the roles, relationships, rewards, and rites that take place. Leadership Human Behavior: As a leader, we need to interact with our followers, peers, seniors, and others; whose support we need in order to accomplish our goals. To gain their support, we must be able to understand and motivate them. To understand and motivate people, we must know human nature. Human nature is the common qualities of all human beings. People behave according to certain principles of human nature. Human needs are an important part of human nature. Values, beliefs, and customs differ from country to country and even within group to group, but in general, all people have a few basic needs. As a leader we must understand these needs because they can be powerful motivators and helps to improve our performance. Analysis of the Leadership style/ Findings: Integrity: It is the integration of outward actions and inner values. A person of integrity is the same on the outside and on the inside. Such an individual can be trusted because he or she never veers from inner values, even when it might be expeditious to do so. A leader must have the trust of followers and therefore must display integrity. Honest dealings, predictable reactions, well-controlled emotions, and an absence of tantrums and harsh outbursts are all signs of integrity. A leader who is centered in integrity will be more approachable by followers. Dedication: It means spending whatever time or energy is necessary to accomplish the task at hand. A leader inspires dedication by example, doing whatever it takes to complete the next step toward the vision. By setting an excellent example, leaders can show followers that there are no nine-to-five jobs on the team, only opportunities to achieve something great. Magnanimity: It means giving credit where it is due. A magnanimous leader ensures that credit for successes is spread as widely as possible throughout the company. Conversely, a good leader takes personal responsibility for failures. This sort of reverse magnanimity helps other people feel good about them and draws the team closer together. To spread the fame and take the blame is a hallmark of effective leadership. Leaders with humility recognize that they are no better or worse than other members of the team. A humble leader is not self-effacing but rather tries to elevate everyone. Leaders with humility also understand that their status does not make them a god. Mahatma Gandhi is a role model for Indian leaders, and he pursued a â€Å"follower-centric† leadership role. Openness: Openness means being able to listen to new ideas, even if they do not conform to the usual way of thinking. Good leaders are able to suspend judgment while listening to others’ ideas, as well as accept new ways of doing things that someone else thought of. Openness builds mutual respect and trust between leaders and followers, and it also keeps the team well supplied with new ideas that can further its vision. Creativity: It is the ability to think differently, to get outside of the box that constrains solutions. Creativity gives leaders the ability to see things that others have not seen and thus lead followers in new directions. The most important question that a leader can ask is, â€Å"What if †¦ ? † Possibly the worst thing a leader can say is, â€Å"I know this is a dumb question †¦ † Fairness: It means dealing with others consistently and justly. A leader must check all the facts and hear everyone out before passing judgment. He or she must avoid leaping to conclusions based on incomplete evidence. When people feel they that are being treated fairly, they reward a leader with loyalty and dedication. Assertiveness: It is not the same as aggressiveness. Rather, it is the ability to clearly state what one expects so that there will be no misunderstandings. A leader must be assertive to get the desired results. Along with assertiveness comes the responsibility to clearly understand what followers expect from their leader. Many leaders have difficulty striking the right amount of assertiveness, according to a study in the February 2007 issue of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, published by the APA (American Psychological Association). It seems that being under assertive or overassertive may be the most common weakness among aspiring leaders. Sense of humor: It is vital to relieve tension and boredom, as well as to defuse hostility. Effective leaders know how to use humor to energize followers. Humor is a form of power that provides some control over the work environment. And simply put, humor fosters good camaraderie. Intrinsic traits such as intelligence, good looks, height and so on are not necessary to become a leader. Anyone can cultivate the proper leadership traits. Process of great Leadership/Suggestions To help us be, know, and do, follow these principles of leadership. This Leadership guide expand on these principles and provide tools for implementing them: †¢ Know ourself and seek self-improvement – In order to know ourselves, we have to understand our be, know, and do, attributes. Seeking self-improvement means continually strengthening our attributes. This can be accomplished through self-study, formal classes, reflection, and interacting with others. †¢ Be technically proficient – As a leader, we must know our job and have a solid familiarity with our employees’ tasks. Seek responsibility and take responsibility for our actions – Search for ways to guide our organization to new heights. And when things go wrong, they always do sooner or later — do not blame others. Analyze the situation, take corrective action, and move on to the next challenge. †¢ Make sound and timely decisions – Use good problem solving, decision making, and planning tools. †¢ Set the example – Be a good role model for our employees. They must not only hear what they are expected to do, but also see. We must become the change we want to see – Mahatma Gandhi. Know our people and look out for their well-being – Know human nature and the importance of sincerely caring for our workers. †¢ Keep our workers informed – Know how to communicate with not only them, but also seniors and other key people. †¢ Develop a sense of responsibility in our workers – Help to develop good character traits that will help them carry out their professional responsibilities. †¢ Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished – Communication is the key to this responsibility. †¢ Train as a team – Although many so called leaders call their organization, department, section, etc. team; they are not really teams†¦ they are just a group of people doing their jobs. †¢ Use the full capabilities of your organization – By developing a team spirit, you will be able to employ your organization, department, section, etc. to its fullest capabilities. Conclusion From the above discussion we can easily understand that Axiata (Bangladesh) Ltd. (ROBI) is one of the top mobile Company of Bangladesh. It covers the whole Bangladesh by its network. There are many product and services of ROBI is available in Market. At this moment the company is in growing position. But the strategies of the company will make the company â€Å"number one† mobile company of Bangladesh. So we can easily find out the Participative leadership style of ROBI is a very developed and effective one. As a multinational company for making the process more effective ROBI should analyze the recruitment and selection process of other multinational company of home and abroad. That can make ROBI perfect in recruiting people and the company will get efficient professionals, that will increased the productivity as well as revenue. How to cite Term Paper on Leadership, Essays

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

The Illegal Body Parts Trade Essay Example For Students

The Illegal Body Parts Trade Essay The number of people requiring a life-saving transplant continues to rise faster than the number of available donors. In the United States, over 101,000 people are on the Organ Procurement and Transplant Network waiting list, but there are only about 100 donors (Data). According to Organdy. Gob, 19 people die each day waiting for life-saving organ transplants (The Shortage). Society as a whole needs to find a humane answer to this widening gap. One way organs and tissues arrive on the black market is from living donors. The desperation of some people that become financially destitute is dumbfounding. Why anyone in perfectly good health would sell any part oftener body is beyond my comprehension. Understand the principle of donating an organ to help someone that needs it in order to survive, but parting with an organ for the sole reason of profit is crazy. If were in this situation, even if the money was needed to feed my family, have a hard time seeing myself ever doing something so extreme. There has to be another way. The lengths that some people will go for money stretch as far as selling a cornea, which leaves the donor blind in that eye (Experts warn). Usually these illegal organs sell to the eighties bidder. We will write a custom essay on The Illegal Body Parts Trade specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Other body parts that can be harvested are veins, bones, skin, intestine, heart, lungs, and many other parts of the anatomy (Organ Donation Statistics. Hue a friend Who has a cadaver CAL in his knee that was donated legally. His doctor told him that the ligament to be replaced was beyond repair because he tore the ligament too many times. The only viable option was another actual ligament that hadnt been damaged before. One from a cadaver. I have heard of synthetic repairs for this procedure, but apparently they are an inferior option to the real body part meant to be there. Certain parts of the anatomy can also be used for reconstructive and cosmetic surgeries. For example, burn victims often need skin grafts and trauma patients sometimes need reconstructive surgery using pieces of bone. Sometimes the tissues can be supplied from the patients own body, using the black market to acquire organs is also dangerous. Poor medical practices in third world countries abroad cant possibly provide the level of care available in well developed countries like the United States. Often surgery takes place in makeshift operating rooms. Stories abound to converting hankies and whole levels of hotels into wards. Infections have and do occur. A study conducted by the David Gaffe School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angles, analyzed the aftereffects of 33 people that traveled outside the United States for kidney transplants. One year after surgery, 30% of the kidneys were rejected by the patients, including one death This is a higher percentage than normal compared to transplants done in the United States (obtaining Kidney Transplants). The risk Of infection applies to the donor as well. Abdul-Raman Abdul-Aziza lives in the slums of Cairo. He sold his kidney for LOS$COCO. A year after his surgery his health became so poor he could barley walk around his apartment. If anyone had made clear to me the danger, wouldnt have done it, he said (Couple scarred. What benefit is gained from selling an organ if you get an infection and die? Money is useless when youre dead. The harvesting of organs and tissues is not always done for money. Many people donate because they have family members or loved ones that desperately need a transplant in order to survive whatever ailment is afflicting them. Others donate simply because they can. The act of voluntary donation can be done while alive or after deceased, although donors who are still alive are limited as to what can be donated. For instance, someone can donate a kidney or part of their liver while theyre still alive, but it would be hard to survive having donated a heart. If more people would voluntarily donate their body parts without jeopardizing their health, the world wide organ shortage would be drastically reduced. It would also help if more people agreed to donate after death, The donation of whole cadavers is the most beneficial. .uc1cd44730bccb7c49ada7448c90ecf24 , .uc1cd44730bccb7c49ada7448c90ecf24 .postImageUrl , .uc1cd44730bccb7c49ada7448c90ecf24 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uc1cd44730bccb7c49ada7448c90ecf24 , .uc1cd44730bccb7c49ada7448c90ecf24:hover , .uc1cd44730bccb7c49ada7448c90ecf24:visited , .uc1cd44730bccb7c49ada7448c90ecf24:active { border:0!important; } .uc1cd44730bccb7c49ada7448c90ecf24 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uc1cd44730bccb7c49ada7448c90ecf24 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uc1cd44730bccb7c49ada7448c90ecf24:active , .uc1cd44730bccb7c49ada7448c90ecf24:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uc1cd44730bccb7c49ada7448c90ecf24 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uc1cd44730bccb7c49ada7448c90ecf24 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uc1cd44730bccb7c49ada7448c90ecf24 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uc1cd44730bccb7c49ada7448c90ecf24 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uc1cd44730bccb7c49ada7448c90ecf24:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uc1cd44730bccb7c49ada7448c90ecf24 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uc1cd44730bccb7c49ada7448c90ecf24 .uc1cd44730bccb7c49ada7448c90ecf24-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uc1cd44730bccb7c49ada7448c90ecf24:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Remember The Alamo March 6 1836 EssayJust one cadaver can yield over a dozen renegotiable organs and tissues (Shanties). The illegal sale of organs and tissues from the dead is a substantial area of supply for the black market body parts trade. The fact that a whole cadaver can be dissected and sold for parts for over $200,000 makes the practice all too appealing for some, no matter the risk (Carrion). The horror stories of doctors, funeral homes, prisons, and Organized crime outfits essentially stealing organs have been documented. Even in the United States this has happened. A couple Of men involved With the Willed Body Program at UCLA, a program that provides cadavers donated to science or medical students, used the medical center as a front for over six years to traffic body parts to the black market. Over 800 cadavers were dismembered and sold for parts (Carrion). Another case in California involved a doctor who tried to speed up his patients death so he could harvest the patients organs. The patient, Ruben Innovator, was on life support and his family had given their permission to donate his organs. Innovators doctor, Dry. Rookie, prematurely administered several drugs in order to hasten the process. Under California state law, transplant doctors cannot direct the care of organ donors before they re declared dead. Innovators mother was very upset. They mistreated him and they abused him and they took advantage of him and me, said Rosa Innovator. He didnt die with dignity, and didnt have the chance to really say goodbye to him. I dont think it is right, These people need to pay for what they did to him (Orenstein). Organ theft happens all over the world and is taking place with frightening frequency, In Egypt, three men supposedly went in for a job interview and oddly were subjected to medical examinations. The doctor discovered that they all were suffering from a kidney infection requiring emergency surgery. They later woke up in the hospital missing a kidney (Bassoon). These types of stories were believed to be urban legend until true accounts like this surfaced. I wish the stories were just urban legend. There are also stories that involve kidnapped children as well as adults. In Albania, doctors working for a terrorist group were taking organs from Seers kidnapped in Spooks and Metaphor. The bodies were dumped in an abandoned mine shaft and in a Swamp (Illegal Organ). Recently a woman in Nepal was burned to death for attempting to steal a child intended for the organ trade. A number Of children have gone missing recently in this area and police believe it is the work of organized crime groups involved with the black market organ trade (Amman Burnt 3. Also, in the Philippines, the National Bureau of Investigation recently issued an alert warning to the rise of child abductions. The kidnappers take the children for the purpose of selling their organs to people from other countries (Alert). This is the worst act that I have read or heard about and it makes me sick. This alone should be enough to warrant more action and involvement to stop the trade of black market organs, Victims of violence in third world countries have also been pillaged for body parts, Nancy Sphere-Hughes, a world renowned expert on the global human organ trade, said that in South Africa she witnessed the cadavers to poor, mostly black. Victims of violence being looted for usable eyes and heart valves (Scales). In addition to organs stolen trot people that died from violence, prisoners have also been targeted as an easy source of body parts. China executes more prisoners than any other country in the world, more than 1770 in 2005, and has admittedly sold organs from executed prisoners (Organ sales), A survey twine organ transplant professionals was conducted and a large portion of them surveyed agreed that procurement methods were ethically sound in the United States and Europe, but only 4% thought that the procurement methods in China were ethically sound (Majority Of Doctors). .u355a0463810dc307e44068dfb6aacc3f , .u355a0463810dc307e44068dfb6aacc3f .postImageUrl , .u355a0463810dc307e44068dfb6aacc3f .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u355a0463810dc307e44068dfb6aacc3f , .u355a0463810dc307e44068dfb6aacc3f:hover , .u355a0463810dc307e44068dfb6aacc3f:visited , .u355a0463810dc307e44068dfb6aacc3f:active { border:0!important; } .u355a0463810dc307e44068dfb6aacc3f .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u355a0463810dc307e44068dfb6aacc3f { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u355a0463810dc307e44068dfb6aacc3f:active , .u355a0463810dc307e44068dfb6aacc3f:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u355a0463810dc307e44068dfb6aacc3f .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u355a0463810dc307e44068dfb6aacc3f .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u355a0463810dc307e44068dfb6aacc3f .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u355a0463810dc307e44068dfb6aacc3f .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u355a0463810dc307e44068dfb6aacc3f:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u355a0463810dc307e44068dfb6aacc3f .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u355a0463810dc307e44068dfb6aacc3f .u355a0463810dc307e44068dfb6aacc3f-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u355a0463810dc307e44068dfb6aacc3f:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Trail of Tears and the Five Civilized Tribes EssayThis could explain some of the infections and aftereffects that have been reported with transplants done outside the United States. The majority Of organ sales and transplants take place abroad. China is now a major hub for transplants, followed by the Philippines and India. Patients seeking new organs travel from Other countries o come over for what has been called transplant tourism ( Merino). The countries that see the highest mourner of recipients of organ transplants tend to be well developed countries like the United States, Australia, Japan, and Canada (Shamanism). Reasonably would wait for a certified organ from a L IE. S. Donor list that has been matched for me and tested for viability, as not all transplants abroad go as planned. One of the many reasons that the purchase and sale of organs is illegal is because it unfairly provides organs to the highest bidders, This usually means that only the wealthy are able to afford transplants. Some have suggested legalizing the organ trade saying that it would increase the donor pool and prevent the need tort illegal and dangerous transplant tourism. Other proponents think that a person has the right to do whatever they want to with their body. People who oppose the idea think that legalization would increase the growth of black market organ sales because it might increase the overall market for organs (Putsches). The suggestion that legalizing the sale of organs may lower scientific standards in exchange for quick and easy money should also be considered. The sale of body parts is illegal in most of the world. This has not stopped desperate patients s eeking transplants to replace their failing organs with healthy ones from either willing donors or from forced donation. Many times that transplants are performed the patients dont know Where the organs come from or how the organs were acquired. Would have to imagine this dont ask, dont tell policy suits most recipients just fine. The illicit underground organ transplant market brings up strong ethical and moral issues as well. There is no question that the world needs a larger supply Of transplantable organs, but he way many of these organs are acquired and procured is sad and inhumane. Whether it is through the many scams out there, forced involuntary donation, or the murder of innocent poor people, organ acquisition without consent needs to be stopped. The sale of organs by the poor is thought by many to exploit the human body. Others say that it erodes the sense of community. Would have to agree. It is sad that the illegal sale of human bodies and body parts has become such a lucrative business. The organized groups that steal organs have no regard for human life. All they see are dollar signs, or whatever their currency may be. Is there a good solution to the escalating organ trade problem?